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COMPUTER TERMS

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COMPUTER TERMINOLOGY
01. Access: To store or retrieve data
02. Add-on: Circuits, systems, or hardware devices that can be attached to a computer to increase its memory or improve its performance
03. Application: A system, such as a payroll, that has been defined to be suitable for electronic data processing techniques
04. Archived file: A file that has been transferred to a lower level in the memory hierarchy, usually from magnetic disc to magnetic tape, may be as a result of operations of appropriate resource management
05. Array: A group of two or more logically related elements identified by a single name; generally stored in consecutive storage locations in main memory
06. Audit trail: A permanent record of every transaction taken by a computer system, indicating for example, when users log in and out, what transaction
they perform, when files are accessed and the type of access. Examination of this record provides a way of observing patterns of security violation and/or
serves as a deterrent to violations
07. Availability: The ratio of time a device is operating correctly to the total scheduled time for operating
08. Back office operations: Operation that does not involve direct interaction with customers
09. Back up: A resource that is, or can be used as a substitute when a primary resource fails or when a file has been corrupted
10. Bar code: A printed machine readable code that consists of parallel bars of varied width and spacing. The application most commonly observed is
the coding on food and goods that is read at the checkout and translated into a line of print on the bill showing product and cost
11. Batch processing: A method of organizing work for a computer system, designed to reduce overheads by grouping together similar jobs
12. Bit: Contraction of binary digit
13. Bug: An error or mistake in a programme
14. Byte: A group of consecutive bits forming a unit of storage in the computer and used to represent one alphanumeric character; a byte usually
consists of 8 bits but may contain more a fewer bits depending on the model of computer
15. Character: An alphabetic letter, a digit or a special symbol
16. Chip: A small section of a single crystal of semiconductor usually silicon, that forms the substrate upon which is fabricated a single semiconductor
device or all the individual devices comprising an integrated circuit
17. Configuration: The particular hardware elements and their interconnection in a computer system for a particular period of operation
18. Debug: To trace and correct errors in programming code or hardware malfunctions in a computer system
19. Downtime: The percentage of time that a computer system is not available for use
20. Dummy: An artificial instruction, address etc. used only to fulfill specification in a programme but not actually performing a function
21. Duplex channel: A communication channel that allows data to be transmitted in both directions simultaneously
22, Encoder: A small table-top electronic machine which is a combination of electronic typewriter and calculator – functions: encode numeric data in the
MICR in desired font; print a listing of amounts of all instructions with batch/grand totals; zero-proofing place clearing endorsement, stamp on the reverse
of instruments
23. Image: A copy in memory of data that exists elsewhere
24. Interface: A common boundary between two systems, devices or programmes
25. Lock: A key or other group of characters that allows access to specified storage locations or software systems
26. Log-in: To enter the necessary information like personal identification number – PIN and/or password to begin a session on a terminal
27. Menu: The list of options may be displayed with a sign code opposite each. The selection may then be made by keying the single code. The method
provides simple way of guiding a user through a complex situation by presenting a sequence of simpler decisions
28. Main memory: Storage located in the computer for programmes, along with their data, while they are being executed
29. MICR: Abbreviation for magnetic ink character recognition. A process in which data printed in ink containing ferromagnetic particles is read by
magnetic read heads
30. Modem: Acronym for modulator demodulator – a device that converts digital data output from another device into analog data that can be transmitted
over communication lines or vice versa.
31. OCR: Abbreviation for Optical Character Recognition
32.Output device: A device that can provide for only the output of data, such as a printer or card punch
33.Password: A group of characters by which a user is uniquely identified, when logging on to a terminal or when submitting a programme for execution
34. Real Time: The time that passes on an ordinary clock
35. Scan: To examine sequentially all the records in a file in order to find those whose keys meet a specified criterion
36. Soft Copy: Output that is displayed on the screen of a video display unit
37. SWIFT: Society for Worldwide Inter-bank Financial Telecommunication
38. VDU: Abbreviation for Visual Display Unit
39. Bandwidth: How much stuff you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bits per second
40.Beta: Preliminary or testing stage of a software or hardware product: “a beta version”; “beta software”
41. BIOS: Stands for Basic Input/Output system: The BIOS is responsible for booting the computer by providing a basic set of instructions
42. Binary: This is a basic system of numbering using ones and zeros
43. Blue tooth: Radio technology that connects electronic devices without using a cable. Data and voice can be exchanged at ranges of up to 10 meters
without the need for devices to be lined up together
44. Boot disk: A diskette from which you can boot your computer
45. Buffer: A place, especially in RAM, for the temporary storage of data for the purpose of speeding up an operation such as printing or disk access
46. Browser: It is a software used for viewing pages on the web
47. Bus: A collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another
48. Catche: A special block of fast memory used for temporary storage of data for quick retrieval
49. CD-ROM: Compact Disc Read Only Memory – an optical storage medium that can hold about 700 MB of data and is accessed with lasers
50. CGA: Stands for Color Graphics Adapter: CGA allowed a maximum of four colours at a resolution of 320 x 200 or two colours at 640 x 200.
51. Clock Speed: The clock speed is the frequency which determines how fast devices that are connected to the system bus operate. The speed is
measured in millions of cycles per second
52. Clustering: A technique in which two or more servers are interconnected and can access a common storage pool
53. CMOS: Abbreviation of complementary metal oxide semiconductor. Pronounced seemoss; CMOS is widely used type of semiconductor
54. COBOL: Common Business Oriented Language
55. CPU: Central Processing Unit – It interprets and carries out instructions, performs numeric computations, and controls the peripherals connected to it
56. Data bus: A group of parallel conductors found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the
computer.
57. Data mining: Sorting through data to identify patterns and establish relationships
58. DDR: Stands for “Double Data Rate”
59. Decoder: A circuit or device that restores a coded signal to its original form based on knowledge of the process used to code the signal
60. Decryption: It is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form, so that it can be understood
61. Dedicated line: It is a phone line meant specifically for one thing, like being attached to a computer
62. Demodulation: It is the process of converting analog information into digital information
63. DLL: Dynamic Link Library
64. DNS: Domain Name Server – it is the system used on the internet for maping names to the actual numerical addresses of machines on the Internet
65. DOS: Disc Operating System
66. Domain name: A name that identifies one or more IP addresses
67. Driver: A program that controls a device. Every device, whether it can be a printer, disk drive, or keyboard must have one driver program
68. EBCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
69. Email: Stands for electronic mail. It is a system of relaying messages across the Internet from one internet user to another
70. Encryption: It is the process of converting data into “unreadable code” so that unauthorized people cannot understand the contents
71. Ethernet: A networking system that enables high speed data communication over coaxial cables
72. Executable file: A file in a format that the computer can directly execute
73. FAQ: Frequently asked questions
74. GUI: Graphical User Interface
75. FTP: File transfer protocol
76. HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language
77. HTTP: Stands for Hyper Text Transport Protocol
78. Icon: A small video display that acts as an activation link when clicked on
79. ISP: Internet service provider
80. ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network
81. Java: A high level programming language developed by Sun Microsystems
82. LAN: a computer network that spans a relatively small area
82. LCD: Abbreviation of liquid crystal display, a type of display used in digital watches and many portable computers
83. Linux: A version of UNIX that runs on a variety of hardware platforms. It is open source software, which is freely available
84. Kilobyte: This is about thousand bytes of space. It is two to the 10th power of 1024 bytes
85. MPEG: Motion Picture Experts Group
86. Peer to Peer: A type of network in which each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities
87. Pen drive: A small device that can be used to easily transfer files between USB-compatible systems
88. Processor: A processor is a device that processes programmed instructions and performs tasks
89. RAM: Random Access Memory
90. ROM: Read Only Memory
91. Serial Port: A port or interface that can be used for serial communication, in which only 1 bit is transmitted at a time
92. SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
93. Spam: This is to transmit unwanted messages, usually over email, to a great many people
94. SLIP: Serial Line Interface Protocol
95. Switch: In networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. LANs that use switches to join segments are called switched
LANs or, in the case of Ethernet networks, switched Ethernet LANs
96. WWW: World Wide Web
97. Virus: A program or piece of code that is loaded into the computer without the knowledge of the computer user and runs against the wishes of the
user
98. WAN: Wide Area Network
99. Weblog: This is publicly accessible personal journal for an individual. Similar to a personal diary, but shared over the web. The activity of updating a
blog is “blogging” and someone who keeps a blog is called as a “blogger”
100.ZIP: Stands for Zone Information Protocol. This is an application that allows for the compression of application files.

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BULLET POINTS - PART: 004
COMPUTER AWARENSS
01. To charge a selected text to all capital letters, click the change case button and then click – caps lock
02. A person who used his or her expertise to gain access to other people’s computers to get information illegally or do damage is a – hacker
03. Where you are likely to find an embedded operating system? – on a desktop operating system
04. Reusable optical storage will typically have the acronym – RW
05. An online discussion group that allows direct live communication is known as – chat group
06. Codes consisting of lines of varying widths or lengths that are computer readable are known as – a magnetic tape
07. A web site’s main page is called as – home page
08. Which of the following is a program that uses a variety of different approaches to identify and eliminate spam? – any spam program
09. To access properties of an object, the mouse technique to use is – right clicking
10. Computers use the _____ number system to store data and perform calculations – binary
11. Phishing trips are attempts by individuals to obtain confidential information from you to falsifying their identity
12. Sharing copyrighted files without permission breaks copyright laws
13. The following can be used to select the entire document – Ctrol +A
14. The system unit – is the container that houses electronic components
15. The simultaneous processing of two or more programs by multiple processors is – multiprocessing
16. A disk’s content that is recorded at the time of manufacture and that cannot be changed or erased by the user is – read only
17. The permanent memory built into the computer is called – ROM
18. The default view in excel is normal
19. System software – helps the computer manage internal resources
20. In word, you can force a page break – by positioning your cursor at the appropriate place and pressing ctrol – enter
21. Grouping and processing all of a firm’s transactions at one time is called – batch processing
22. Help menu is available at which button – start
23. The personal files and folders can be kept at – my documents
24. Help menu is available at which button – start
25. A central computer that holds collections of data and programs for many PCs, workstations and other computers is a server
26. When you save to this, your data will remain intact even when the computer is turned off – secondary storage device
27. The drafts folder retains copies of messages that you have started but are not yet ready to send
28. You can refine a search by providing more information and the search engine can use to select a smaller more useful set of results
29. The contents of memory are lost when the computer turns off
30. The tab row enables you to simultaneously keep multiple web pages open in one browser window
31. A DVD is an example of an optical disc
32. The basic unit of a worksheet into which you enter data in excel is called a – cell
33. Formatting is the process of dividing the disk into tracks and sectors
34. Which ports connect special types of music instruments in sound cards ? – MIDI
35. The process of transferring the files from a computer on the internet to your computer is called – downloading
36. Computer and communication technologies such as communication links to the internet that provides help and understanding is the end user is known as – FTB
37. Which of the following is contained on chips connected to the system board and is a holding area for data instructions and information? – memory
38. To reload a web page, press the button – refresh
39. Mobile commerce is best described as – buying and selling goods/services through wireless handheld devices
40. Video processors consist of CPU and memory which store and process images
41. The main circuit board of the system unit is the control unit
42. Installation is the process of copying software programs from secondary storage media to the hard disk.
43. Nanosecond is billionth of a second
44. When the pointer is positioned on a hyperlink, it is shaped like a hand
45. The computer abbreviation – KB usually means – kilo byte
46. Connection or link to other documents of web pages that contain related information is called – hyperlink
47. An animation is a special visual and audio effect applied in Power Point to text or content
48. The following is a programming language for creating special programs like apples – Java
49. The piece of hardware that converts the computer’s digital signal to an analog signal that can travel over telephone lines is called - a enterprise
50. Personal computers can be connected together to form a network

 COMPUTER SHORTCUTS

[1] Alt + F ---- File menu options in current program.
[2] Alt + E ---- Edit options in current program
[3] F1 ----- Universal Help in almost every Windows program.
[4] Ctrl + A ----- Select all text.
[5] Ctrl + F ------ Open find window for current document or window.
[6] Ctrl + S ----- Save current document file.
[7] Ctrl + X ----- Cut selected item.
[8] Shift + Del ----- Cut selected item.
[9] Ctrl + C ----- Copy selected item.
[10] Ctrl + Ins ----- Copy selected item
[11] Ctrl + V ----- Paste
[12] Shift + Ins ----- Paste
[13] Ctrl + P ----- Print the current page or document.
[14] Home ----- Goes to beginning of current line.
[15] Ctrl + Home ------ Goes to beginning of document.
[15] End ------ Goes to end of current line.
[16] Ctrl + End ----- Goes to end of document.
[17] Shift + Home ----- Highlights from current position to beginning of line.
[18] Shift + End ----- Highlights from current position to end of line.
[19] Ctrl + Left arrow ---- Moves one word to the left at a time.
[20] Ctrl + Right arrow ------- Moves one word to the right at a time.

OTHER IMPORTANT TERMS

Input Devices – Access the data
Central Processing Unit (CPU) – Process the data
Output Devices- Produces the result
Storage Devices (RAM) – Stores the result
HARDWARE COMPONENTS
Internal hardware components
CPU
Mother Board
RAM
Sound Card
Video Card
Hard Drive
DVD
External Hardware components
Keyboard
Mouse
Printer
Scanner
Monitor
Speakers
Input Devices (accesses the data)
Devices which helps us to interact with computer is nothing but input devices
Ex: Keyboard and Mouse
Output Devices (provides the output)
Devices which sends back the information to you is nothing but Output Devices
Ex: Monitor and Printer
Central Processing Unit (processes the data)
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Central Processing Unit is also called as the “Brain of the Computer” or Main Processor which controls all the systems inner functions.
It is very easy to replace because it is inserted into the socket and is not soldered onto the motherboard
A computer may contain more than one CPU which is nothing but MULTIPROCESSING
Two main parts of CPU are
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Control Unit (CU).
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): ALU is also called as basic building blocks of Central Processing Unit, which performs all arithmetic and logical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
Control Unit (CU): Control Unit controls the entire processing. It helps in the communication between Memory and ALU
A place where we can store the data or set of instructions to access them while performing the operations 
There are two types of memories (storage devices)
RAM (Random Access Memory)
ROM (Read Only Memory)
RAM (Random Access Memory)
RAM (Random Access Memory) is one of the storage devices which performs both read and write operations. But RAM is Volatile in nature it loses the data when there is no power supply. It is fast while programming when compared to ROM
There are two types of RAM
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)
SRAM ( Static Random Access Memory)
ROM (Read Only Memory)
Main advantage of ROM is that we can easily alter the data or reprogrammable. Advantage of ROM is Non –Volatile in nature which does not loses any data when there is no power supply. Motherboard may consist of more than one ROM chips.
Types of ROM
ROM- Read only Memory
PROM- Programmable Read only Memory
EPROM- Erasable Programmable Read only Memory
EEPROM- Electrically Erasable Programmable Read only Memory
Flash EEPROM memory
OPERATING SYSTEMS (OS)
Operating System is a type of software that allows computer hardware to communicate with software. A computer without OS is a mere machine
Ex: DOS (Disk Operating System), Linux, Solaris.
Types of operating systems
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
GUI is an interface, which allows us to interact with electronic devices like mobiles, gaming devices and Mp3 players using some graphical icons
Ex:Windows 98, Windows CE, System 7.X
Multi-user operating system
Application software which allows multiple users to access the computer with time sharing system
Ex: Linux, UNIX, Windows 2000
Multiprocessor operating system
An operating system which supports the utilization of two or more processors on single computer Ex: Linux, UNIX, Windows 2000
Multi-Tasking
An operating system which supports multiple processes at the time Ex: Unix, Windows 2000.

Computer terminologies and abbreviations are frequently asked in Bank PO and other bank exams like the Specialist Officer exam. Here is an extensive list of short-forms or abbreviations related to computers and IT:
ACE: Access Control Entry
ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AGP: Accelerated Graphics Port
AI: Artificial Intelligence
ALGOL: Algorithmic Language
ALU: Arithmetic Logic Unit
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
API: Application Program Interface
APIPA: Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing
APT: Automatically Programmed Tooling
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol
ARPANET: Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
ASCII: American Standard Code For Information Interchange
ASF: Advanced Streaming Format
ASP: Active Server Pages
ATAPI: Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface
ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AUI: Attachment Unit Interface
AVI: Audio Video Interleave
BASIC: Beginner`s All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BCD: Binary Coded Decimal
BDPS:: Business Data Processing Systems
BHTML: Broadcast Hyper Text Markup Language
BIOS: Basic Input Output System
BIU: Bus Interface Unit
BMP: Bitmap
BPS: Bytes Per Seconds
C-DAC: Centre For Development Of Advanced Computing
CAD: Computer Aided Design
CADD: Computer Added Drafting And Design
CAI: Computer Aided Instructuion
CAM: Computer Aided Manufacturing
CAR: Control Address Register
CASE: Computer Aided Software Engineering
CCIS: Common Channel Interoffice Signaling
CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate
CD: Compact Disc
CD RW: Compact Disc ReWritable
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
CDROM: Compact Disc Read Only Memory
CFG: Control Flow Graph
CGI: Common Gateway Interface
CGM: Computer Graphics Metafile
CIDR: Classless InterDomain Routing
CIM: Computer Integrated Manufacture
CISC: Complex Instruction Set Computers
CIX: Commercial Internet Exchange
CLR: Common Language Runtime
CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CMS: Content Management System
CMYK: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Key (Black)
COBOL: Common Business Oriented Language
CORBA: Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CPI: Clock Cycle Per Instruction
CPU: Central Processing Unit
CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRM: Customer Relationship Management
CROM: Control Read Only Memory
CRT: Cathode Ray Tube
CUI: Character User Interface
DAC: Digital To Analog Converter
DAO: Data Access Objects
DARPANET: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
DBA: Data Base Administrator
DBMS: Data Base Management System
DCA: Defence Communication Agency
DCL: Data Control Language
DCOM: Distributed Component Object Model
DCP: Data Communication Processor
DDL: Data Definition Language
DDOS: Distributed Denial Of Service
DDP: Distributed Data Processing
DFD: Data Flow Diagram
DFS: Distributed File System
DHCP: Dynamic Host Control Protocol
DHTML: Dynamics Hyper Text Markup Language
DLC: Data Link Control
DLL: Dynamic Link Library
DMA: Direct Memory Access
DML: Data Manipulation Language
DMTF: Distributed Management Test Force
DNA: Distributed Internet Architecture
DNS: Domain Name System (Server)
DOM: Document Object Model
DOS: Disk Operating System, Denial Of Service
DPI: Dots Per Inch
DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory
DSL: Digital Subscriber Line
DSN: Digital Subscriber Network
DTD: Document Type Definition
DVD: Digital Versatile Disc
E: Electronic
EAROM: Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory
EBCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
EDC: Electronic Digital Computer
EDCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EFS: Encrypted File System
EJB: Enterprise Java Beans
ENIAC: Electronics Numerical Integrator And Calculator
EPROM: Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EROM: Erasable Read Only Memory
ERP: Enterprise Resource Planning
EULA: End User License Agreement
FAT: File Allocation Table
FDD: Floppy Disk Drive
FDDI: Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access
FIFO: First In First Out
FLOPS: Floating Point Operations Per Second
FO: Fiber Optics
FORTRAN: Formula Translation
FPS: Frames Per Second
FRAM: Ferro Electric Random Access Memory
FTP: File Transfer Protocol
GB: Giga Bytes
GIF: Graphic Interchange Format
GIGO: Garbage In Garbage Out
GML: General Markup Language
GPL: General Public License
GUI: Graphical User Interface
HDD: Hard Disk Drive
HFS: Hierarchical File System
HP: Hewlett Packard
HPC: High Performance Computing
HPFS: High Performance File System
HSR: Horizontal Scan Rate
HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language
HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
IO: Input Output
IBM: International Business Machines
IC: Integrated Circuit
ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol
ICS: Reduce Instruction Set Computer
ICT: Information And Communication Technology
IDE: Integrated Development Environment
IE: Internet Explorer
IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol
IL: Intermediate Language
IOP: InputOutput Processor
IP: Internet Protocol
IPX: Internetworked Packet Exchange
IRAM: Integration Ram
IRC: Internet Relay Chat
IRDA: Infrared Data Association
IRQ: Interrupt Request
ISAPI: Internet Server Application Program Interface
ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO: International Standard Organization
ISP: Internet Service Provider
ISR: Interrupt Service Routine
IT: Information Technology
ITPL: Information Technology Park Limited (India)
JCL: Job Control Language
JDBC: Java Data Base Connectivity
JHTML: Java Within Hyper Text Markup Language
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group
JSP: Java Server Pages
KB: Kilo Bytes
KBPS: Kilo Bytes Per Second
L2TP: Layer Two Tunneling Protocol
LAN: Local Area Network
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display
LDAP: Light Weight Directory Access Control
LIFO: Last In First Out
LIPS: Logical Interfaces Per Second
LOC: Lines Of Code
LSI: Large Scale Integration
LSP: Layered Service Provider
MAC: Media Access Control
MAN: Metropolitan Area Network
MAU: MultiStation Access Unit
MB: Mega Bytes
MBONE: Multicast Backbone
MBPS: Mega Bytes Per Second
MBR: Master Boot Record
MCP: Microsoft Certified Professional
MCS: Multicast Server
MDI: Multiple Document Interface
MDS: Microcomputer Development System
MFC: Microsoft Foundation Classes
MFT: Master File Table
MG: Mega Bytes
MICR: MagneticInk Characters Reader
MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIMD: Multiple Instruction Multiple Data
MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
MIPS: Millions Of Instructions Per Second
MISD: Multiple Instruction Single Data
MODEM: Modulator And Demodulator
MP3: Motion Pictures Experts Group Layer 3
MPEG: Motion Pictures Experts Group
MS: Microsoft
MSDN: Microsoft Developer Network
MSIIS: Microsoft Internet Information Server
MSIL: Microsoft Intermediate Language
MSMQ: Microsoft Message Queue
MSN: Microsoft Network
MSRAP: Microsoft Remote Administration Protocol
MSRPC: Microsoft Remote Procedure Call
MTS: Microsoft Transaction Server
MTU: Maximum Transmission Unit
MUDS: MultiUser Dungeons
NAS: Network Attached Storage
NASSCOM: National Association Of Software & Service Companies
NCP: Network Control Protocol
NDIS: Network Driver Interface Specification
NDRO: Nondestructive Read Out
NETBEUI: Netbios Enhanced User Interface
NIC: National Informatics Centre,
NIIT: National Institute Of Information Technology
NNTP: Network News Transfer Protocol
NSFNET: National Science Foundation Network
NTFS: New Technology File System
NTP: Network Time Protocol
OCR: Optical Character Readers
ODBC: Open Data Base Connectivity
OLE: Object Linking And Embedding
OMR: Optical Mark Reader
ONE: Open Network Architecture
OOA: Object Orient Analysis
OOAD: Object Oriented Analysis And Design
OOP: Object Oriented Programming
OOPS: Object Oriented Programming System
OPEN GL: Open Graphics Library
OS: Operating System
OSI: Open System Interconnection
PC: Personal Computer
PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCMCIA: Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PDA: Personal Digital Assistant
PDF: Portable Document Format
PDL: Page Description Language
PDU: Protocol Data Unit
PIC: Programming Interrupt Control
PILOT: Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching
PLA: Programmable Logic Array
PLC: Programmable Logic Controller
PNG: Portable Network Graphics
PNP: Plug And Play
PPP: Peer To Peer Protocol
PPTP: Point To Point Tunneling Protocol
PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory
PS: Post Script
RADSL: RateAdaptive Digital Subscribes Line
RAID: Redundant Array Of Independent Disks
RAM: Random Access Memory
RAMDAC: Random Access Memory Digital To Analog Converter
RAS: Remote Access Network
RD RAM: Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
RDBMS: Relational Data Base Management System
RDO: Remote Data Objects
RDP: Remote Desktop Protocol
RFC: Request For Comments
RGB: Red Green Blue
RICS: Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RIP: Raster Image Processor
RISC: Reduced Instruction Set Computer
ROM: Read Only Memory
RPC: Remote Procedure Call
RTC: Real Time Clock
RTF: Rich Text Format
RTOS: Real Time Operating System
SACK: Selective Acknowledgements
SAM: Security Access Manager
SAP: Service Access Point, Systems Applications Products
SCMP: Software Configuration Management Plan
SD RAM: Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SDD: Software Design Description
SDK: Software Development Kit
SDL: Storage Definition Language
SDN: Integrated Service Digital Network
SDRAM: Static Dynamic Random Access Memory
SDSL: Symmetric Digital Subscribes Line
SG RAM: Synchronous Graphics Random Access Memory
SGML: Standard Generalized Markup Language
SIM: Subscriber Identification Module
SIMD: Single Instruction Multiple Data
SISD: Single Instruction Single Data
SIU: Serial Interface Unit
SMP: Symmetric MultiProcess
SMS: Short Message Service
SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNA: System Network Architecture
SNAP: Sub Network Access Protocol
SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol
SNOBOL: String Oriented Symbolic Language
SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol
SPX: Sequenced Packet Exchange
SQA: Statistical Quality Assurance
SQL: Structured Query Language
SRAM: Static Random Access Memory
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
STP: Shielded Twisted Pair
SVVP: Software Verification And Validation Plan
SW: Software
TAPI: Telephony Application Program Interface
TB: Tera Bytes
TCP: Transmission Control Protocol
TCPIP: Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol
TDI: Transport Data Interface
TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access
TPM: Transactions Processing Monitor
TSR: Terminate And Stay Residents
UDD: User Datagram Protocol
UDP: User Datagram Protocol
UI: User Interface
UML: Unified Modelling Language
UNC: Universal Naming Convention
UNIX: Uniplexed Information And Computer Systems
URL: Universal Resource Locator
USB: Universal Serial Bus
USRT: Universal Synchronous Receiver Transmitted
UTP: Unshielded Twisted Pair
VAN: Virtual Area Network
VAST: Very Small Aperture Terminal
VB: Visual Basic
VC++: Visual C++
VCD: Video Compact Disc
VDL: View Definition Language
VGA: Video Graphics Array
VHS: Video Home System
VLIW: Very Long Instruction Words
VLSI: Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits
VPN: Virtual Private Network
VRAM: Video Random Access Memory
VRML: Virtual Reality Modelling Language
VS: Visual Studio
VSNL: Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited
VVR: Software Validation And Validation Report
VXD: Virtual Device Driver
W3C: World Wide Web Consortium
WAIS: Wide Area Information Servers
WAN: Wide Area Network
WAP: Wireless Application Protocol
WBEM: WebBase Enterprise Management
WDM: Wave Division Multiplexing
WHQL: Windows Hardware Quality Lab
WINDOWS ME: Windows Millennium Edition
WINDOWS NT: Windows New Technology
WINDOWS XP: Windows Experienced
WINS: Windows Internet Name Service
WMI: Windows Management Instrumentation
WML: Wireless Markup Language
WORM: Write Once Read Many
WSH: Windows Script Host
WWW: World Wide Web
WYSIWYG: What You See Is What You Get
XHTML: Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language
XML: Extensible Markup Language
XSL: Extensible Style Sheet Langauge
Y2K: Year 2000.

IT Glossary
Bill Shock – is an industry term used to describe a high billed amount. This is brought about by the user not being aware of the rates or added costs.

Configuration - an arrangement of parts or elements

Content Filtering – is the technique whereby content is blocked or allowed based on analysis of its content.

Cyberslacking – in today’s terms, generally refers to staff who use their work internet access for personal reasons while maintaining the appearance of work.

Firewall - is an integrated collection of security measures designed to prevent unauthorized electronic access to a networked computer system.

IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) - a set of protocols developed to support secure exchange of packets at the IP layer. IPSec has been deployed widely to implement Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).

Network – The interconnection of two or more computers by a communications medium, together with appropriate hardware and software.

Network Manager- Individual responsible for administering configuring, planning, monitoring, and establishing standards and procedures for a network.

Proactive Alerts – If something unusual is happening with your Internet connection, a proactive alert is what lets you know about it so you can address it before it becomes a security, productivity, financial or legal issue.